Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Unchallengeable Authenticity of Guru Granth Sahib

Unchallengeable Authenticity of Guru Granth Sahib

No scope for interference or interception whatsoever

The Guru Gobind Singh Endowment Chair of the History department of the University of Mumbai, in association with Sri Guru Singh Sabha Mumbai organized an International Conference on Spiritual Journeys: Aspects of Sikh Studies as part of the Gurta Gaddi Tercentenary Celebrations from 10-12 February 2009. The deliberations focused on Relevance of Guru Granth Sahib in Modern Times and Contribution of Maharashtra to Sikhism. World Sikh News regular columnist Nanak Singh Nishter presented this unique paper on the genuineness of Guru Granth Sahib.

The teachings of Guru Granth Sahib are unique in many ways, though for the present I will focus on some salient aspects of it. The thrust of my submission is the unquestionable authenticity of this Scripture, revered by the Sikhs as their Living Guru. Authored by founder Gurus of the Sikhism during their lifetime, inscribed in their presence and checked by them in a meticulous and scientific manner, there is not even the slightest scope for interference or interception ever.

On page number 1350 of Guru Granth Sahib, Bhagat Sheikh Kabir Ji has given a crystal clear verdict about the sanction of all scriptures saying that, �Do not say that the scriptures of Indian religions and Semitic religions are false, false is he, who does not reflect upon their contents.�

byd kqyb khhu mq JUTy JUTw jo n ibcwrY ]

(Bgq Sy^ kbIr jI - AMg 1350)

In view of the unambiguous direction, I dare not compare any scripture with another and as a devout Sikh, I am duty bound to accept them per se. In view of the unfounded doubts that are often expressed about other scriptures, it is my humble intention to project the authenticity of Guru Granth Sahib beyond all suspicion and disbelief. With due respect to all Scriptures, without creating any confusion or questioning their content, I would like to make a passing reference to their origin.

n 1699, the Tenth and the last Guru in person, Guru Gobind Singh Ji finalized the status and identity of a Sikh by transforming them into �sovereign people of the wondrous God� that is, �Wahguru Ji Ka Khalsa�, as he put it. He also added the Bani of the ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadar Ji and completed the present version of Aad Granth Sahib in the year 1705, before conferring Guruship on it in the year 1708.

Scriptures are written documents of the original philosophy and foundation of religions, compiled and authenticated to be preserved by followers and to be used as fountainheads of wisdom, decades and centuries after the departure of their founders from this world.

The Torah of Judaism was compiled three centuries after the death of its founder, Mosses. The Zend Avastha of Zoroastrianism of Parsis was compiled three centuries after its founder, Zoroaster. The Dhampada of Buddhism was compiled two centuries after the death of its founder Goutam Buddha. The Bible of Christianity was compiled two and a half centuries after the death of its founder Jesus Christ. Presently, four different volumes are considered to be authentic and prevail in the Christian world. The Quran of Islam was compiled by Hazrat Omar -the Third Caliph, who compiled the text, seventy years after the death of its founder Hazrat Mohammad. The text of Hadees (sayings) of Hazrat Mohammad was compiled after two centuries. Four different versions are accepted to be correct by Muslims.

A big No to Pothi Sahib

Of late, some scholars have started a rather unhealthy trend to describe Aad Granth Sahib as Pothi Sahib, saying that Pothi Sahib was conferred Guruship and then onwards it was called as �Guru Granth Sahib�. The fact is that the Granth Sahib is a collection of several Pothis, compiled in a single volume. One probable reason for this confusion is an unclear understanding of the following verse of Guru Arjan Sahib on page 1226 saying that, �Pothi (religious text) is the abode of God�. It simply means that by reading and understanding the religious text, a person can obtain knowledge about God.

poQI prmysr kw Qwnu ]

(SRI gurU Arjn swihb - AMg 1226)

It does not mean that Guru Sahib has attributed that name to this volume. After compiling the holy scripture Guru Sahib specifically named it as �Aad Granth�. Aad means primal, i.e., God. Guru Sahib named it so because the entire text is about the Aad Purakh i.e., The God. How far is it appropriate to change the Guru Sahib�s given title name of �Aad Granth� to other name �Pothi Sahib�. Does it make sense or does it any way enhance the importance of the volume? Is it not sacrilege?

On page number 922, in the Bani of Anand Sahib, Guru Amardas Ji says, �This Universe which you are seeing is the manifestation of God. It is an image of God. Visualize the presence of God in this Universe�.

eyhu ivsu sMswru qum dyKdy, eyhu hir kw rUpu hY hir rUpu ndrI AwieAw ]

( m:3 - AnMd - AMg 922 )

God�s quality of Omnipresence has been repeatedly reiterated. It is improper, wrong and malafide to attempt to confine His Omnipresence to our Scripture or place of worship.

Generally speaking, three terms are frequently used to describe volumes of Gurbani. They are also frequently used with similar meanings in other vernacular languages. Let us briefly analyze them. The first term is Gutka. The Gutka is a small handy, pocket-size volume containing some Shabads and Banis. The second term is Pothi. The Pothi is a comparatively larger volume and contains more Banis than a Gutka. The third and the biggest volume is the Granth. All three are Sanskrit words and are commonly used.

At some places two marks have been applied to a single alphabet, one to pronounce in the tune of the meter and the other to show the exact pronunciation of the correct word. This is a unique technique used in Gurbani, which is perhaps not found in any other language. All these bindings and disciplines have been proved to be sternly supportive to prevent any change or insertion in the text of Guru Granth Sahib.


The compilation of Granth Sahib was designed and initiated by the first Guru, Guru Nanak Sahib. Wherever Guru Sahib went on his Udasis (sojourns), he collected the authentic versions of the bani (verses) of the divines of the Indian religious traditions in their original languages. For preparation of this unique Scripture, the first Guru (1469-1539) collected the revelations and teachings of these pious souls, some of whom had passed away as long as 250 years prior to his birth.

He collected their works from their native places and in their original simple communicative spoken languages. For example Baba Sheikh Farid Ji (1175-1265) a Muslim from Punjab, Bhagat Jaidev Ji (1201-1245) a Brahmin from Bengal, Bhagat Namdev Ji (1270-1350) a so-called low caste person, Bhagat Trilochan Ji (1267-1335) a Vaish from Maharashtra, Bhagat Ramanand Ji (1366-1467) a Brahmin from Uttar Pradesh, Bhagat Sain Ji (1390-1440) a barber from Madhya Pradesh, Bhagat Dhanna Ji (born 1415) a Jat, Bhagat Pipa Ji (born 1426) a Rajput king of Rajasthan, Bhagat Sheikh Kabir Ji (1398-1495) a Muslim weaver from Utter Pradesh and so on. The dates of Bhagat Sadna Ji, a Muslim butcher from Sind and Bhagat Beni Ji are not known; probably they were of a much earlier period.

Out of the 36 contributors, 7 are Muslims, 6 are the Sikh Gurus, 2 are from the so-called lower caste and 1 was a Sikh, while all others were Hindus of various denominations. The first of the five Gurus continued the process of collecting the material for 135 years from 1469 to 1604 for inclusion in this Scripture. These volumes were in the size of books, hence called Pothis. These were passed on to the successor Gurus for preservation. The fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Sahib got it inscribed in one volume over a period of five years under his personal supervision from 1599 to 1604 from Bhai Gurdas. At several places he has counter checked the version and has attested as �Shudh (correct)� and wherever he made corrections he has attested as �Shudh Keechey� (corrected).

In 1699, the Tenth and the last Guru in person, Guru Gobind Singh Ji finalized the status and identity of a Sikh by transforming them into �sovereign people of the wondrous God� that is, �Wahguru Ji Ka Khalsa�, as he put it. He also added the Bani of the ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadar Ji and completed the present version of Aad Granth Sahib in the year 1705, before conferring Guruship on it in the year 1708.

To keep intact and maintain the sanctity of the earlier contributors, Guru Gobind Singh did not insert a single line of his composition, nor did he use the nomenclature Nanak for his own contributions. The rationale to do so was to deliver a clear message about safeguarding and maintenance of the originality of the text of Aad Granth Sahib in its total form without any confusion or misinterpretation.

It is a live-wire tradition amongst Sikhs going on for centuries since 1708 to seek forgiveness at the end of every congregation. A supplication is made to God and Guru in the form of Ardas (concluding prayer) seeking pardon for any mistake of addition, omission or wrong utterance during recitation of hymns of Guru Granth Sahib.

Organisation of Gurbani

Another beauty of this scripture is that the same page numbers and sequence of lines are maintained in all editions. The chapters are divided on the basis of meters of poetry in Indian Classical Rags, Ghar (subdivision of main Rags) and Dhunis (tunes) and various specified styles. Every verse of a Shabad (stanza) is numbered with total verses in a Shabad, total number of Shabads in the Ragninis and so on. Minute care has been taken to apply appropriate Laga-Matra (pronounceable marks) to pronounce correct phonetics and spell it with accurate grammatical meaning. At some places two marks have been applied to a single alphabet, one to pronounce in the tune of the meter and the other to show the exact pronunciation of the correct word. This is a unique technique used in Gurbani, which is perhaps not found in any other language. All these bindings and disciplines have been proved to be sternly supportive to prevent any change or insertion in the text of Guru Granth Sahib.

Original Reproduction

Even for reproduction of the text, the Gurus adopted a code of conduct. Without interfering with the original text, wherever any confusion arose regarding interpretation and explanation, the Gurus have compiled separate verses in their own name. Both the original and explained verses are inscribed in it. For example we can see Jap Ji Sahib of Guru Nanak Sahib Ji. On page No.8 the last line of the Salok goes like, �Jini naam dhiyaiya gaye msakkat ghal, Nanak, te mukh ujle keti chutti naal�. To explain it further, the second Nanak, Guru Angad Sahib compiled the same bani of Salok on page No.146 under his name and included one extra word �hor� saying, �Jini naam dhiyaiya gaye maskkat ghal, Nanak, te mukh ujle hor keti chutti naal�. At another place, from page No.1410 onwards in the chapter �Waran Te Wadheek�, Guru Nanak Sahib�s 33 Saloks are inscribed. Out of it, one Salok, No. 27 goes like this, �Lahore shahar zahar kahar sawa pehar�. To explain the changed circumstances of Lahore city during his period without touching the original, the third Nanak, Guru Amar Das Ji compiled another Salok No. 28 and added to it saying, �Lahore Shahar Amrit Sar Sifti Da Ghar�.

Apart from other hymns, a chapter of �Salok Sheikh Farid Ke� starts from page No.1377, in which his 130 Saloks are inscribed. Out of this, the third Nanak, Guru Amar Das Ji has compiled and added in his own name, Salok No.13 on page No.1378, Salok No. 52 on page No.1380 and Salok No.104 on page No.1383. This indicates that this bani was in the possession of Guru Sahib, which enabled him to write an explanation about it. And the fifth Nanak, Guru Arjan Sahib Ji has compiled and added in his own name Salok No. 75 on page No. 1381, Salok No. 82 and Salok No. 83 on page No.1382, Salok No. 105, Salok No.107, Salok No.108, Salok No.109, Salok No.110 on page No.1383 and Salok No.111, on page Nos.1383-1384. This shows deep reverence to the original text which was painstakingly kept fully intact.

Apart from other hymns, a chapter of �Salok Bhagat Kabir Jio� starts from page No.1364, in which his 243 Saloks are inscribed. Out of this, the third Nanak, Guru Amar Das Ji has compiled and added in his own name Salok No.220 on page No.1376. The fifth Nanak, Guru Arjan Sahib Ji has compiled and added in his own name Salok No. 209 - Salok No. 210 and Salok No. 211 on page No. 1375, Salok No. 214 and Salok No. 221 on page No.1376.

Apart from other hymns, in the chapter of �Aasa Bani Bhagat Dhanne Ji Ki� on page No.487, the fifth Nanak, Guru Arjan Sahib Ji has compiled and added in his own name a complete Shabad, which is Shabad No.2.

�Gobind Gobind Gobind Sang Namdev man leena�.

On page No. 947, in the chapter titled �RamKali Ki Var Mhalla 3�, of the third Nanak Guru Amar Das Ji, Shabad No. 2 starts with the Salok of Bhagat Kabir Ji in Kabir�s own name and is followed by the verses of Guru Sahib.

Inclusive Approach

The approach of Guru Granth Sahib towards all religions is equalitarian and inclusive as the Scripture of mankind. It not only teaches the importance of the qualities of compassion, sympathy, goodwill and tolerance but emphasizes the significance of accepting all religions and its followers as equal and co-travellers of the Universe.

The contributions of enlightenment and spiritual knowledge of the text of the Scripture should determine the status of the Scripture. One of the key differences of Guru Granth Sahib with other Scriptures is that in no other Scripture one finds a message for the believers of other faiths. The beauty of Guru Granth Sahib is that, those persons not belonging to Sikhism are sitting and preaching their own religious faiths from the single source of this Scripture. This is a unique mosaic of spiritualism and a marvelous example of a universal message amidst diverse contradictory attitudes and infamous traditions of the followers of the prevailing Indian religions. This gives an unprecedented call that seemingly different and contradictory religions are basically one in letter and spirit.

Guru Nanak Sahib has invented a new methodology of forcefully expressing his views without hurting the sentiments of people of other faiths though his opinion is radically contrary to the prevalent practices. The founders of all religions have denounced and condemned their earlier religions and Scriptures. They have preached something new saying that God has revealed them to do so. But Guru Sahibs have graciously accepted all of them as true and recognised them as different paths to the same destination. They have showed a way of spirituality and truthful way of life, above religiosity and beyond the bonds of rites and rituals. Gurbani denounces superficial diversities which create differences, superiority, inferiority, hatred and underlines the inherent similarities and fundamental truths of all religions.

All Scriptures of the world were revealed to a single prophet and that too in a single language. After certain period of time the contents of the scriptures were challenged and contradicted by philosophers and theologians. Contentions of many scriptures are still a matter of debate and discussion. The revelations, wisdom and personal experiments of 36 pious souls during their span of life of 500 years, in the human laboratories among different denominations, facing all ups and downs of practical life, have been narrated in Guru Granth Sahib. All engagements are beyond the bonds and barriers of time. Thus these teachings, encompassing a time span of five centuries, were not only relevant for that period but are more than relevant for the present and future generations. Therefore, Guru Granth Sahib is a Living Guru for all ages.


To preserve and protect the authenticity and sanctity of the text of Guru Granth Sahib, many measures were adopted and several sacrifices were made. One of first steps taken was by the seventh Guru, Guru Har Rai Sahib. In 1661, his eldest son and celebrated scholar Ram Rai was sent to the court of Emperor Aurangzeb for rendering explanation of certain hymns misunderstood by the Mughal Durbar. Instead of doing justice to the theme as contained in a Shabad, he avoided facing a debate and replaced while quoting from Guru Granth Sahib only one word. When Guru Har Rai Sahib learnt about this, he asked his son not to show his face and also instructed the Sikhs not to have any worldly terms with him and his people.

This was the first ex-communication of Sikhism, it stands valid till today, and will last eternally. Even during the formal ceremony of Amrit (Sikh way of baptism), each seeker of Amrit is clearly reminded not keep any liaison with the followers of Ram Rai. Such was the importance attached by Guru Sahib to Gurbani and will remain as such for all times to come.

In recent times Shri Akal Takhat Sahib has imposed �Tanqah (religious punishment)� on such writers, who created unnecessary, unsavoury and unwarranted controversies about the authenticity of the text of Guru Granth Sahib. On 1st April 1993, Dr. Piara Singh was punished for his book �Gaatha Sri Aad Granth�. On 27th June 1994, Dr. Pishoura Singh was punished for his book, �The Text and Meaning of Aad Granth�. On 10th July 2003, Gurbax Singh Kala Afghana was similarly reprimanded, penalized and ex-communicated. On 10th March 2004, Jogendar Singh, Chief Editor, Rozana Spokesman, was also ex-communicated for his objectionable writings.

Conferring of Guruship

In all religious traditions of the world, messengers of God were in human form and after their lifespan their presence ceases. Guru Sahibs evolved and gave unto us the unique philosophy and tradition of �Guru in Shabad� �the Guru in word, gyan, knowledge and wisdom, enabling continuous eternal guidance. The Shabad was the Guru of our Gurus and also of the Sikhs. This new concept of Guru prevailed in the past, is valid for the present and will reign in future. It can never become obsolete. It is timeless, it is beyond time.

This digest of teachings of 500 years from Baba Sheikh Farid Ji (1175-1265) to the ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bhadar Ji (1621-1675) is a vast library in itself for the benefit of entire mankind. It is a unique compendium of knowledge, wisdom and way of life, covering the whole plethora of topics from war to worship. The Sikhs revere it, even to the extent of worshiping it as a ritual.

The Sikhs cannot escape the guilt of denying access to themselves and to others who would like to partake and enjoy the eternal bliss of the Universal Truth enshrined in the pages of Guru Granth Sahib. The human race would stand to benefit if steps are taken by Sikhs and others to seek and implement the spiritual, secular and simple way of life teachings of Gurus and saints of a variety of religious traditions in Guru Granth Sahib.

Nanak Singh �Nishter� is a Hyderabad based orator, writer and Urdu poet. He s a regular contributor to World Sikh News. He is an activist-academician making immense contribution to the social and cultural welfare of Sikh society. He has presented papers at national and international seminars on Sikhism and social problems. He is director of International Sikh Centre for Interfaith Relations. He may be contacted at

Top police officers expose Modi\'s bias, KPS Gill\'s role

New Delhi: EVEN AS THE Indian Corporate world led by the likes of Ratan Tata and Anil Ambani wants to see Hindutva mascot like Narendra Modi as the next Prime Minister of India, this beloved of the Indian right wing communal forces was splashed in some more shame when two senior police officers told the investigators in a Supreme Court-appointed panel that the Gujarat CM had a pronounced anti-Muslim bias.

The Special Investigation Team (SIT) probing the 2002 anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat saw R.B. Sreekumar, a former additional director general of police (ADGP) who was in-charge of the state Intelligence Bureau during the riots, and Rahul Sharma, the then Bhavnagar Superintendent of Police, questioning the impartiality of the administration.

�The Chief Minister summoned me to his chamber on May 7, 2002, and instructed me not to concentrate on Sangh Parivar, as its members were not doing anything illegal. He asked me to concentrate on Muslim militants, and get data on Amanpath, suspected to be a Muslim group,� Sreekumar said in his affidavit. Narendra Modi was the CM then.

Predictably, Modi\'s government kept mum after the allegation came to light. Modi was famously denied visa by the US because of his ugly record on the human rights front.

What was even more important was the police officer\'s revelations about KPS Gill. This man with a blot the size of the Indian ocean on his face, as a result of his all-blemished track record in Punjab during militancy years, was the one found encouraging Modi in his devious plans.

�K.P.S. Gill, the adviser to the Chief Minister, had told state police chief K. Chakravarthy not to reform the politicians � meaning thereby , not to take any action against the VHP and Bajrang Dal. The adviser also wanted the police to vacate the riot victims living in the relief camps, exhibiting a clear anti Muslim bias,� Sreekumar said in his affidavit.

Sreekumar says he is prepared to be cross-examined, and has stood by what he stated on oath in the affidavits.

Sharma, who is a Deputy Inspector Gneral, CBI, in Mumbai, said: \"Minister of State for Home Gordhan Zadaphia had contacted me and said the ratio of deaths as a result of police firing was not proper. What I understood was that, he was complaining about more number of deaths of Hindus as compared to Muslims in Bhavnagar city .\"

In his affidavit, prominently reported by the Hindustan Times, Sharma said a large part of the police records related to riots had been destroyed and �it was on my own conscience that I managed to submit to the investigating agencies what I could protect�.

Interestingly , Sreekumar and Sharma both faced the wrath of the Modi government for not toeing the �official line�. Sreekumar, who retired in February, was chargesheeted in 2005, for leaking intelligence reports.

Last year, the Ahmedabad bench of the Central Administrative Tribunal quashed the government order and directed payment of all dues to him and slammed the government for denying him a promotion. Sharma was shunted out of Bhavnagar within days of his talk with Zadaphia to an insignificant position in the Ahmedabad Control Room.

Badals slip on Anandpur Sahib Resolution

Badals slip on Anandpur Sahib Resolution

Father-son duo hold on to Resolution for five days, then fall flat before the BJP.

CHANDIGARH: Having shunned all pretensions to a principled politics, and finding panthic issues as a burden that repeatedly comes back to haunt the ruling House of Badals, the father-son duo of Parkash and Sukhbir Singh Badal spent the last week wrestling with the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, first claiming their commitment to the document and then saying they will make the saffron BJP understand it, before making the final capitulation on Tuesday. Now, they say they will not mention the Resolution anymore.

Poor novice at panthic affairs and still learning the crooked ways perfected by father CM, Punjab�s Deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal slipped easily on a seemingly innocuous query of a journalist last week and said the Akali Dal was very much committed to the Anandpur Sahib Resolution and that it demanded better rights for the states vis-�-vis the Centre.

As BJP fumed and saffron ministers openly said they found the Anandpur Sahib Resolution separatist, the Congress too jumped into the act. Former Chief Ministers Amarinder Singh and Rajinder Kaur Bhattal both issued statements that it was a separatist document. Such remarks found resonance in BJP statements too.

The Akalis, instead of politely reminding the alliance partner and the opposition that the Resolution was referred to the Sarkaria Commission by none other than Rajiv Gandhi, started fumbling.

Sukhbir said perhaps the BJP could not see the Resolution in proper spirit and that the Akali Dal will make its NDA partner understand it in a proper perspective, Parkash Singh Badal also tried to wriggle out by saying Anandpur Sahib Resolution only spoke of autonomy to states.

But by Saturday, Sukhbir, now Akali Dal president but clearly a greenhorn in the panthic domain, found to his chagrin that the Anandpur Sahib Resolution had more than one version and there was much that he did not understand about the document himself, forget about making the BJP understand it.

When he went for a press conference in Jalandhar on Satruday, reporters were ready with piercing queries: Anandpur Sahib Resolution demands nationalisation of industries with more than Rs 1 crore turn over. What is the Akali stand on it? The Resolution wants nationalisation of the transport sector in Punjab. So is Sukhbir ready for nationalisation of Orbit bus company that his family runs in Punjab? The Resolution wants New Delhi to make wearing of kirpan mandatory for Sikh armymen in the Indian Army. So why has Badal Sahib not ensured that at least the Sikhs in his personal security detail at least keep beards and wear a kirpan? Why has then kirpan not been made mandatory in Punjab Police?

If Anandpur Sahib resolution proposed to keep the power and wealth out of the grip of capitalists, how come the SAD-BJP model of development was totally moving along a different agenda of neo-liberal capitalist economy?

As Sukhbir fumbled, hawed and hee-hawed, one journalist fired a question that had him trumped completely?

�Which version of Anandpur Sahib Resolution do you commit to, the 1973 version or the 1978 one?� asked a rather bright journalist, clearly clutching copies of various versions of the document in hand.

Poor Sukhbir had not known from Adams that there was some quibbling over the versions too. �Ok, enough, I am leaving the press conference,� he got up with a huff and then agreed to continue with the press conference only after the reporters promised not to ask any more questions about Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

Badal woman to fight from Bathinda

Punjab polity hurtles along towards the elections and both the Congress and the Akali Dal-BJP combine are currently busy resolving the riddles along the way.

After a long time, Punjab�s people saw former CM Amarinder Singh and Congress leader Rajinder Kaur Bhattal together on one stage in Nurmahal even as Congress continues to struggle with the selection of candidates. Bhattal is likely candidate from Sangrur, Amarinder wants Bathinda seat for son Raninder while Ambika Soni will fight the Anandpur Sahib seat.

Experts believe that the Akali Dal has deliberately fielded weakling Daljit Singh Cheema from Anandpur Sahib in order to make Soni�s win sure under a secret pact with the Congress. In lieu, the party high command may help the Badals in Bathinda from where either Sukhbir Badal�s wife Harsimrat Kaur (never tired of saying she has nothing to do withg politics and was committed to social work) or elder Badal�s wife Surinder Kaur (never tired of saying all her efforts were religious and she only wants to do langar sewa) will be fighting.

Akali Dal is still to make its mind clear on Ludhiana seat but it is not going to the BJP. Congress� Manish Tewari is set to fight from Ludhiana. Navjot Sidhu, it is reliably learnt, will definitely be fighting from Amritsar seat

Next day�s newspapers dutifully carried news about how Sukhbir stayed back at the conference after assurances that he will not be asked about the Resolution.

By Monday, journalists elsewhere sharpened their queries, and it was the turn of Parkash Singh Badal himself, an absconder from every panthic battle imaginable and who has perfected the art of crawling out of a difficult situation with shrewdness, silence or obfuscation.

This time he was candid. And how? He simply refused to answer queries on a subject which was so dear to his heart a few years back that he had sent many young ones of others to jails and death fighting for the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

Asked about BJP�s stance that the Anandpur Sahib Resolution was separatist in nature, Badal instead asked the media not to ask him any more questions on the issue, said the media corps was generating unnecessary controversy and then laid it out thick: �I will not discuss this matter and you should not pose any questions to me.�

The old man is losing his touch with the art of obfuscation.

Instead, he was quick to underline that there was no friction �between the Akali Dal and the BP over this or any other issue.� How could there be friction if the Akali Dal is ready to dump the issue at the asking of minions like Balbir Punj or Manoranjan Kalia.

BJP�s Punjab in-charge, Balbir Punj, was clear: �Our stand is same as was in the past. Akalis may support the resolution, but we are against it.�

On Tuesday, the father-son Badals duo, Punj, Manoranjan Kalia, Navjot Sidhu and Bikram Majithia closetted in a room in Amritsar and then came out with a joint decision: The Akali Dal will not even refer to the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

So much for the impact and legacy of Dharam Yudh Morchas, the Sikh aspirational struggle and the inheritance of pain and unkempt promises.

Sewa Family Style

How does one respond to the innocence of the shrewd? The candidness of the crooked? The politically correct platitudes of those who mean not a word of what they spew and who live in a world absolute in its self-centeredness?

On advice from a designer image building firm, Akali Dal president Sukhbir Singh Badal�s wife emerged from the family�s shadow to do her bit to change the world. And out she came with her Nanhi Chhanv project. Ostensibly, this was a project aimed to sensitise the people about unborn female child.

Punjab�s media went gaga and journalists fell upon each other to underline the sense of commitment and social awareness that Harsimrat Kaur Badal brought to the fore after she was shocked by the shameful sex ratio in Punjab. In its hurry to praise the family, the media forgot to ask why Harsimrat Kaur Badal is so slow in making the low sex ratio a kew issue, considering that the last census figures came out in all their glorious details in 2002? It also did not ask why Harsimrat Kaur Badal has not condemned tens of advertisements hailing the birth of her son a few months after that census.

In advertisement after advertisement, small time Akali leaders and minions of the Badal family spoke about Akhand Paths to thank the Akal Purakh for blessing the family with a �waaris�. �Puttar mithhrre meve, rab sabhna nu deve,� shouted many ads. Not a single such advertisement had appeared when Harsimrat was blessed with a daughter a few years earlier.

Clearly, Nanhi Chhanv is an idea that bloomed late into her heart. Just as Bibi Surinder kaur Badal took her own time before deciding that it is a good thing to off and on visit Sri Harimandir Sahib and perform sewa at the langar. Neither Nanhi Chhanv projects happen in the absence of press photographers, nor does langar sewa go on without the media corps in Amritsar being intimated beforehand.

In all of this, willing pens and cameras are not doing much service to the cause of journalism.

But see the latest statements from the House of Badals to see what The Family was up to all along even when editors were penning hosannas to their social service ventures. With a shamelessness that the media has grown apathetic to and readers immune, Sukhbir Singh Badal now announces from the stage what a few years back would have been an allegation against the Badals behind the scenes.

�Someone from the Badal family will fight the election from Bathinda. We will soon take a decision,� Sukhbir has said some score times now. About as many times, Harsimrat too told us that she was purely a social service woman and not really into politics. Now, under so much pressure from her beloved people of Punjab, the poor social worker is buckling: �If given the responsibility to fight the Bathinda seat, I will fulfill it.�

Oh! How relieved are the people of Punjab. And how candid is Harsimrat about democratic norms and values. �Whosoever got SAD ticket for Bathinda, it would be a member of the Badal family as due to the family�s efforts in this constituency the person would get votes,� she has said.

In case you are missing something, she lays it on thick, and in dollops of sound bites: �Bathinda had been close to my family and we had been concerned about its development.�

Senior Akali leaders now never reel out a speech without praising the great work being done by Sukhbir Badal, the social commitment of Harsimrat Badal and the religious zeal of Surinder Kaur Badal. The precious family that has been moving heaven and earth for the Chardi Kala of the Sikh panth rules in Punjab and over the religious organization, the SGPC. Its success denotes not just the downslide in public life and norms, but the electorate�s failure to engage itself with the issues. Those who think that there is something intrinsically wrong with such family rule should look inwards and ask when was the last time we seriously engaged with an issue and studied our own role objectively.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Nokia Australia announces Comes With Music to launch on 20th March

Nokia Australia announces Comes With Music to launch on 20th March

Sydney, Australia - Nokia's revolutionary digital music offer, Comes With Music, will be commercially available in Australia on 20 March 2009 together with the highly anticipated Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, Nokia's first mass market touch screen device.
"While the hot-selling Nokia 5800 XpressMusic has already sold a million devices worldwide*, Australians we will be among the first in the world to get their hands on a Comes With Music-enabled Nokia 5800 XpressMusic when it hits the stores next month," said Emile Baak, General Manager, Nokia Australia and New Zealand.
"We believe that Comes With Music offers great value and will revolutionise the way music lovers can explore, discover and enjoy music. By combining Comes With Music with the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic we are providing a great music great offer on a great device," he said.
The Australian Nokia Music Store has over 4 million tracks from local and international artists. Consumers can either download direct to their 5800 XpressMusic handset or direct to PC and transfer the music across to the device and, unlike most subscription services, anything they download is theirs to keep.
"The fact that you get to keep your downloaded music is what makes Comes With Music unique and great value," Baak said.
Music lovers can stay connected to the music they like, yet no longer worry about the cost of purchasing music by single tracks or album. The freedom and simplicity of the service is unparalleled.
Nokia's other Comes With Music markets to date are the United Kingdom and Singapore.
The Nokia 5800 XpressMusic
As a handset, the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic offers all the music essentials, including a graphic equalizer, 8GB memory for up to 6000 tracks and support for all main digital music formats, and a 3.5mm jack. Built-in surround sound stereo speakers offer the industry's most powerful sound.
The touch screen interface features an innovative 'Contacts Bar' which lets consumers highlight four favorite contacts on their home-screen and, through a single touch, track a digital history of recent text messages, emails, phone logs, photos and blog updates.
As people around the world use their phones in different ways, the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic offers a variety of input methods including a virtual alphanumeric keypad, a virtual computer-style QWERTY keyboard, a pen stylus -- and for true music enthusiasts, a plectrum will also be included in box.
The 3.2" widescreen display brings photos, video clips and web content to life in vibrant color and true clarity. With a 16:9 aspect ratio and 30 frames-per-second playback and 25 fps recording, the device is ideal for VGA quality video recording and playback.
The Nokia 5800 XpressMusic also features a 3.2 megapixel camera with Carl Zeiss lens and, with a single touch, images or videos can be shared via a favorite online community, such as Share on Ovi, Flickr, or Facebook.
Pricing and Availability
The Nokia 5800 XpressMusic will be available on various service provider plans and from leading retailers from 20 March 2009.
The recommended retail price for Nokia 5800 XpressMusic with 12 months subscription to Comes With Music is 979 AUD. The 5800 XpressMusic will also be available with selected service providers with an 18 month Comes With Music subscription at an RRP of 1109 AUD.
Press photos of devices are available at
*Nokia announced on 23 January 2009 that it has shipped its millionth Nokia 5800 XpressMusic device.
About Nokia
Nokia is the world leader in mobility, driving the transformation and growth of the converging Internet and communications industries. We make a wide range of mobile devices with services and software that enable people to experience music, navigation, video, television, imaging, games, business mobility and more. Developingand growing our offering of consumer Internet services, as well as our enterprise solutions and software, is a keyarea of focus. We also provide equipment, solutions and services for communications networks through Nokia Siemens Networks.
Media Enquiries:
Hausmann Communications
Kate Harper or Nicole Kennedy
Tel: +61 2 9361 3777

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Nokia continues to increase cost-efficiency and adapt operations to market

Nokia announces voluntary personnel initiatives, introducing Voluntary Resignation Package and encouraging sabbaticals
Espoo, Finland - As part of its previously announced plans to increase cost-efficiency and adapt to the challenging market environment, Nokia today announced new voluntary measures aimed at reducing personnel-related costs and lessening the need for involuntary redundancies. The initiatives announced today include the global Voluntary Resignation Package and wider use of short-term unpaid leaves and sabbaticals. Nokia also encourages employees to take holiday as time off instead of taking cash compensation in 2009.
"The response from employees and employee representatives in proposing ideas to help reduce personnel-related costs has been encouraging. We have considered these and are now announcing voluntary initiatives that could contribute to our efforts to adjust our cost base to the current market environment. If successful, the voluntary initiatives will lessen the need for involuntary redundancies," said Hallstein Moerk, Nokia's Head of Human Resources.
The global Voluntary Resignation Package will be made available for employees worldwide, with the exception of direct labour and senior executives. The terms and conditions of the package are in accordance with local practices and legislation. The Voluntary Resignation Package will be open for application from March 1 until 1,000 employees have applied, closing at the latest May 31, 2009.
During 2009, Nokia will also grant short-term unpaid leaves and sabbaticals of, for example, one month, more freely where operations allow and business continuity is not jeopardized. Furthermore, during 2009 the company will also encourage employees not to "cash in" their holiday but to take their holiday as time off, as it is intended.
Terms and implementation of all these schemes are subject to local practice and legislation.
These measures are part of Nokia's previously announced plans to adjust its business operations and cost base according to market demand and safeguard future competitiveness. Nokia continues to seek savings in operational expenses, looking at all areas and activities across the company.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

FISHLABS and Nokia sign N-Gage agreement

Five multiple award-winning mobile games coming to N-Gage
Hamburg, Germany and Espoo, Finland - Nokia and FISHLABS Entertainment GmbH, a leading developer and publisher of high-quality 3D mobile games, today announced an agreement to bring games to the N-Gage service.
Titles scheduled for release in 2009 include, Powerboat Challenge(TM), Rally Master Pro(TM), and Snowboard Hero(TM) followed by Galaxy on Fire(TM) and Blades & Magic(TM) in early 2010. All titles will be significantly improved in terms of graphics and sound quality and will be enhanced with additional features. With the powerful multimedia capabilities of N-Gage compatible mobile phones, FISHLABS can now offer an even better gaming experience.
"The N-Gage cooperation with Nokia is one of the most important milestones for FISHLABS since its founding," says Michael Schade, CEO of FISHLABS Entertainment GmbH. "Being able to market games on millions of devices with the marketing power of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer is a major success for us. Our strategy of relying exclusively on high-quality, innovative mobile games fits perfectly with that of Nokia to sell only the best products on N-Gage."
"The outstanding quality of FISHLABS mobile games is almost legendary, and we are pleased to have gained one of the best developers for N-Gage with FISHLABS," adds Gregg Sauter, Director, Third Party Games Publishing, Nokia. "FISHLABS' portfolio of multiple award-winning games is especially popular with core gamers and, thanks to the superior performance of the N-Gage platform; Nokia will be able to win over many fans of FISHLABS as well as new gamers for N-Gage."
FISHLABS is one of the leading developers and publishers of high quality mobile 3D games. Founded in 2004, FISHLABS is responsible for the development of more than 20 high-end mobile games and employs a team of 30 people at the company's headquarters in Hamburg, Germany. FISHLABS' portfolio of mobile games includes numerous award-winning original IPs, such as Galaxy on Fire(TM), DEEP(TM), Blades & Magic(TM), Rally Master Pro(TM) or Snowboard Hero(TM) as well as AAA brands for well-known business partners, such as V-Rally® 3D for Glu, Star Wars(TM) - Imperial Ace 3D for THQ or Tony Hawk's Downhill Jam(TM) for Infospace (Activison license) and most recently Gladiator(TM). The high quality of FISHLABS' 3D mobile games is demonstrated by numerous awards, such as Best Mobile Game 2008 (Rally Master Pro(TM)) and third-best mobile game 2008 (Snowboard Hero(TM)) according to Pocket Gamer Analysis. FISHLABS is also the Best Mobile Game Developer 2008 according to MobileGamesDB.
Thanks to the high-performance, platform-independent games engine ABYSS® which supports about 300 different Java(TM) and BREW(TM) devices and the iPhone(TM), FISHLABS' titles are able to offer a quality never before attained in the sphere of mobile gaming. FISHLABS 3D mobile games are distributed worldwide over more than 160 well known network providers such as T-Mobile, Vodafone, O2, Orange, 3, Telefonica, Cingular, Sprint and Verizon as well as directly over
Since July of 2008, the company has offered the mobile phone game community myFISHLABS, where users can benefit from features such as price advantages, easier payment, additional features, credit kick-backs, upgrades, and the exchange of information about their favourite mobile games with other community members.
For more information visit
About N-Gage
N-Gage is a connected mobile games service by Nokia, making it easy to find, try, buy, and play high-quality mobile games on the latest mobile devices. N-Gage offers a broad portfolio of games by Nokia Games Publishing and the world's leading publishers. N-Gage Arena is a community that enables people around the world to connect and play games with others.


In the process, the youthful African-American has pushed much of the nation\'s past and ingrained prejudice into the dustbin. Barack Obama has won US presidentship and with one long jump marked America\'s date with history.

What has helped Barack Obama sweep in political terms, the election is the havoc George W. Bush has wrought on his country during eight years in power. His sweeping victory came in the face of the suffering which can be understood only by the generations of those who have gone through it over 200 years, and for no fault of theirs, but because of the accident of birth and the colour of their skin. That an enormous majority of whites fought shoulder-to-shoulder with African-American compatriots to make Obama win shows the change that has taken place in the American psyche and society that many doubted the country was actually prepared for.

The Iraq war, which President Bush and his chosen men fought with the arrogance that often comes with power, split the United States � for and against. The collapse of the world\'s most powerful economy, the emptying pockets of the Americans living under mortgaged houses and surviving with the help of plastic money called credit cards, and the fear of losing jobs � all had pushed the mighty United States of America into acute anxiety, bordering on despair that called for outright rejection of the Republicans � neocons or otherwise. Judging from size of the mandate, the Americans have accepted Barack Obama\'s promise, saying \'No\' to John McCain because he belonged to the same party and adhered to the same ways of thinking as other Republicans who were the cause of their problems and who could provide a cure.Barack Obama strode across the US for two years, felt their pulse and addressed the causes of their anxiety that was sapping much of their energy and creativity and promised change and a better future. In essence, the US was wanting change and the need for someone who promised hope to the country that had fallen on bad days.

The United States of America, despite being a super power and equipped with a huge arsenal of nuclear weapons, is living in adversity these days. Barack Obama has understood what afflicts his country, nevertheless. In his victory speech, he has spoken to his countrymen in the language of Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, not as a leader of the African-Americans but of the entire nation of whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, those of Indian and Chinese origins and all others who made America their home over two centuries to help it become a super power. He appealed to them all for values that weld a nation to face the crisis the US is caught in. The applause and jubilation across the vast swathes of the United States shows that a major chunk of Americans trust his ability to lead them at this time with new ideas and self-assurance.

His campaign speeches, as most campaign speeches go, do not, however, give any indication how he is going to go about tackling them. Barack Obama has indeed inherited a huge pile of problems � both domestic and international � left behind by George W. Bush. Some vagueness always helps line up greater support before the polls, it proves a liability afterwards, however.

To be a success at the White House, he has to ensure that there is more cash with people to buy off the shelf, more petrol in their cars, enough money to pay for the house under a credible mortgage system, good education for children and the medicare they can afford. It is really a tall order, but the test of a leader comes at a time of crisis, not when the going is good. Obama now has to work out his priorities. He has to ensure how to pull the US out of the economic crisis that has hit his country bringing into question the very nature of capitalism the US has been built on, a free-for-all banking system that has left their coffers empty and the bankers rich, and the policies that are pushing the US into economic recession. The world of

The world of the 21st century is bound to see new power equations. Europe and a Russia sitting on oil, are re-emerging, wanting to be counted. The rise of India and China during the next couple of decades is going to make a difference in what essentially is a multi-polar world where the US alone cannot call the shots. The United States, a mighty super power, has been wanting to shape the world in its own light. It is now finding that it is no longer possible for it to do so. The hubris that sometimes comes to an individual, or to a nation, stands deflated. And the US prestige and the ability to influence events in other parts of the world are greatly diminished, possibly frustrating for it.

What place Barack Obama will find in history for himself will depend on how far he succeeds in restoring the US\'s confidence in itself, and a respectable place in the world around it. Both will depend on what he actually does with power now in his grasp and the enormous goodwill that he has been able to evoke at home and abroad. Good luck to him.How Barack Obama restores American prestige abroad remains to be seen. The speeches, before and soon after the election, do not indicate whether he has as yet evolved a clear set of polices towards other countries that merit presidential attention. But he is unlikely to be isolationist in what is now a globalised world. Search 10




\'The Word is the Guru: one who gathers its melody in the consciousness is the disciple.\'

(Ramkali, M. 1, Siddha Goshti : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'It is only when the True Guru is merciful that one sees Him. Having wandered through countless births one hears His Word.\'

(Asa, M. 1 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'It is by dying, through the Guru\'s Word, while yet alive that the Lord\'s Name abides in the mind.\'

(Sri Raag, M. 3 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'The Lord, is immersed in the unstruck Melody of the Word.\'

(Asa, M. 1 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'Nectar-sweet, O my beloved God, are Your Words. O Beauteous enticer of my heart.\' (Devghandhari, M. 5 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'How shall we become fearless if we do not fear the Lord and merge in His Word.\'

(Sri Raag M. 1 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'Nectar-sweet is the speech of my God, my Friend. I have seen with care, His Word is never bitter. The Perfect Master knows not a bitter Word and does not look at my faults.

For, it is His innate nature to purify the sinners and to reward even an iota of virtue.\'

(Suhi M. 5, Chhant : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

There\'s a very,very important concept in Sikhi. When someone understands this concept then they have laid the foundation stone of Guru Nanak Dev jee\'s house in their heart:

\'Banee Guru, Guru ha Banee\' - Guru Ram Das jee.

The Banee is the Guru, the Guru is the Banee\'

When Great Guru, True Guru, SatGuru Nanak Dev jee was on His missionary tour (Udassi) in Siri Lanka, the king really became attatched to Guru Nanak and couldn\'t bear to see Satguru jee depart. The king asked how will I be blessed with your holy presence if you leave (i.e. how will I have your vision (Darshan) )? Satguru jee explained to him that Guru Nanak was not the physical body that the king had met. Guru Nanak was the shabad (the word of Waheguru jee). Of course the body was very blessed because it was the Shabad-Guru\'s outer covering, but the Guru was the shabad ( the Divine teacher is the word of Waheguru). Satguru jee told the king to become attatched to the shabad.

Ultimately a person gets so attatched to the Shabad that they reach a state called \'Shabad-surat da mel\'also known as \'liv\'. This means when the shabad and you are merged like water merging into the ocean. This is when you hear the unstruck melody and see Waheguru jee\'s light which brighter than hundreds and thousands of Suns. This is when you return home to Waheguru jee. This is the place from where the Shabd originated and this where it has brought you back.

Guru Gobind Singh jee tells us that the same light shone in all the Gurus. I.e. the shabad was passed from Body number 1 to Body number 2 all the way to Guru Granth Sahib jee. Whenever you read a Shabad, the title has somthing like : Mahala 1, or Mahala 5. Mahala means Body, so Mahala 1 means body number 1 i.e. Guru Nanak Dev jee.

The label of the Shabad is Nanak. In other words Waheguru\'s word has been stamped with the seal called Nanak. This is why most shabads have Nanak in the last line regardless of which holy body the word came through.

Doing paat in english wont take you back to the source. Just hearing Waheguru jee\'s shabad, let alone understanding, has a powerful effect on the listener. The person who also understands it and applies it to their life is one in millions and blessed beyond belief.

Gurmukhi (the language of Waheguru jee\'s shabad) is not very hard to learn, it just takes some effort. No one was born knowing Gurmukhi everyone has to make an effort. Learn Gurmukhi and see it as doing seva of SatGuru jee, as it was Satguru jee who created the Gurmukhi script.


\'Why should God\'s servant, whose forehead the Guru strokes with his hands, grieve or care (worry)?

His comings and goings (re-incarnation into the world of Desire) cease.

He is a sacrifice to the Perfect Guru.\'

(Ramkali, M. 5 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

Why d\'ya go to the Gurdwara, man?

My SatGuru\'s place is the holy land.

Why d\'ya meet the saints at sunrise?

The rays of love shine from their eyes.

Why d\'ya wear orange and blue?

These colours were given by SatGuru.

What d\'ya say while bowing so low?

Your wonderful glory only you know.

What d\'ya say when you mutha-take?

Forgive this sinner, SatGuru so great

Why d\'ya walk around SatGuru?

I\'m a loving moon of the World-Guru

Why do you fan devotedly?

So all can see Guru is royalty.

Why d\'ya stand with hands together?

So Guru jee hears this crying beggar.

Why d\'ya listen to the Hukam Nama?

So I learn to become the perfect lover.

What d\'ya serve after Kirtan singing?

Karah Prashad is SatGuru\'s blessing.

Why is it so delicious and sweet?

So I\'ll be sweet to everyone I meet.

Why d\'ya give food to langar?

So my spirit satisfies its hunger

Why d\'ya wash the cups and plates?

So my mind is washed of bitter hate.

Why d\'ya sweep the dirt and mess?

So my mind is swept of its selfishness.

Why d\'ya do all these things?

To win the love of my SatGuru King.

Why don\'t you just love your wife?

I love her but it lasts one life.

And when she goes the love will break

I want Love that Death can\'t shake

I want Love that is eternally True

So I serve and sing True Waheguru.


Around and around and around I go,

Hands pressed together and head bowed low,

Singing sweet shabads full of humility,

Walking around my Guru Granth Sahib jee.

My life, my love, my reason for living,

Undying light and the One True King,

Around and around and around I travel

My Creator\'s mysteries begin to unravel.

Jewels have been found on the seabed

The Moon has a flag white, blue and red.

An X-ray image finds our hidden face,

But no-one has found the Creator of our Race.

The way to our Maker is in Guru Granth Sahib Jee,

The secret path for setting our spirit free,

So why waste time trying to get to Mars?

And drive across America in big, flash cars?

The Undiscovered world is in Guru Granth Sahib jee,

So walk around and around with humility.


\'With joined palms, Nanak seeks Refuge, O dear Master, emancipate me.\'

(Asa M. 5, Chhant : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

\'Be merciful and unite me with Yourself. Bless me with Your Refuge. Please me so that I ever stand in Your Presence with joined palms.\'

(Dhanasri Chhant, M. 4 : Guru Granth Sahib Jee)

You know you keep asking me to do ardas for you, well I did ardas for you today at the Gurdwara with the sadh sangat. I asked the Guru jee to forgive me & you for insulting the Giani\'s yesterday by saying \'all they do is eat Karah prashad\'. I asked the Guru jee to forgive us like a father forgives his

ignorant children, but then makes them understand.

The reason I asked for forgiveness is that in Sukhmani Sahib, Great Guru Arjun Dev jee says that the Sadh sangat is very dear to the Guru & the Saints are dear to the Guru jee. Then the Guru jee says that anyone who insults these are cursed by AkalPurakh.

It easy to go into the Gurdwara and criticize people, but that is Kalyug (dark, evil thoughts in this Dark-age) distracting our minds from the beauty of the Guru jee and all the people that serve the Guru jee.

And just by looking at the Gianis how can you tell how much Waheguru loves them? So what if they are overweight - does Waheguru only love skinny people?

The Guru jee loves everyone who comes into His Holy prescence and not only bows to Him but to every single person in the Sadh sangat (i.e. bow to them in your mind - beg for the dust of their feet : that\'s why people do \'joothee-a dee seva\' (wiping shoes)) . When you go into sadh sangat and only criticise yourself and beg the Great Guru jee for forgiveness then the Guru jee loves you and guides you.

If you slander the sadh sangat or the sevadars, then you have let your EGO take control of your mind and you don\'t recive any of the Guru\'s blessings-no matter how many times you go to the Gurdwara.

When you go to the Gurdwara you should only criticize yourself and treat everyone as better than you. This is how Sikhs please the Guru jee.

You don\'t like it when Sikhs look down at you, so don\'t look down at them.

I only realised this recently and am sharing the knowledge with you. My mind always criticizes, but I\'m battering it into shape so it only criticizes me. I\'ve been a sikh all my life, but I only found out how to mutha-take last week! First you have to praise the Greatness of the Guru jee \'Baba jee you are

wonderful, you love all and everybody and I am so lucky to come to the Gurdwara and see you\'.

Second, you ask for forgiveness for all your mistakes. Thirdly, see the Supreme light of Great Guru Gobind Singh jee infront of you at the throne and you are mutha-taking to Him. He knows what\'s inside you so what would He say to you? What hukam(command) would he give you? This is how to mutha-take, this is how you talk to the Guru jee and please Him.

And if you want a better job then get the blessings of the Sadh-sangat and the Gianis, serve langar to them and ask them to do ardas for you. The power of the sadh sangat is infinitely more than any individual like me - that\'s why I go there.

The Guru Granth Sahib (GGS)

God, the first Guru - Guru Nanak declared that anything he declared was declared under the authority of the creator, God.

The Gurbani (Bani of the Guru) is very easy to understand and contains countless anecdotal references and analogies. Although various English translations of the Guru Granth Sahib are available - as well as Punjabi translations, the form and content of the Guru Granth Sahib remains unchanged. Sikhs are unanimously agreed upon keeping the original form and content and where there have been attempts to alter this, these have been met with great resistance and opposition.

The Language

The Guru Granth Sahib is written in its entirety in Gurmukhi which translated means from the mouth (Mukh) of the Guru. Gurmukhi was developed by the first Guru and then promoted by his successors, it was a language spoken and understood by all classes of people, the Guru hoped for the scriptures to be accessible by all. The Guru Granth Sahib also contains hymns which are written in a language known as Sahiskriti as well as Sant Bhasha, it also contains many Persian and Sanskrit words throughout. Though the language was known as Gurmukhi, recent political problems in India have led it to be officially known as Punjabi.

The Contributions

The Guru Granth Sahib contains hymns from seven of the ten Gurus - Guru Nanak (974 shabads - hymns), Guru Angad (63), Guru Amar Das Ji (907), Guru Ram Das Ji (679), Guru Arjan (2218), Guru Teg Bahadar Ji (116) and one couplet from Guru Gobind Singh. One sixth of it is composed of verses and hymns written by Bhagats of that region, the contributions from Bhagats are as follows : Bhagat Kabir (541), Bhagat Nam Dev (60), Bhagat Ravi Das (41), Bhagat Trilochan (4), Bhagat Dhana (4), Bhagat Farid (134), Bhagat Beni (3), Bhagat Jai Dev (2), Bhagat Bhikhan (2), Bhagat Sur Das (2), Bhagat Parmanand (1), Bhagat Sain (1), Bhagat Pipa (1), Bhagat Sadna (1), Bhagat Ramanand (1) and Bhagat Sundar (6). The Bhats were poets of the Guru\'s court. They wrote compositions praising the Guru and honoring his spiritual authority. Their contributions are as follows : Bhat Kal (49), Bhat Kalsehar (4), Bhat Tal (1), Bhat Jalup (4), Bhat Jal (1), Bhat Kirat (8), Bhat Sal (3), Bhat Bahil (1), Bhat Nal (6), Bhat Bhikha (2), Bhat Jalan (1), Bhat Kas (14), Bhat Gend (5), Bhat Sevak (7), Bhat Mathra (10), Bhat Bal (5) and Bhat Harbans (2). In addition to this, there are 3 compositions by Bhai Mardana - the companion of the first Guru and also 8 compositions by Bhai Sata and Bhai Balvanda, two Sikhs of Guru Arjan \'s time.

The Form

The Guru Granth Sahib consists of 1430 pages, It begins with a Bani known as the Japji followed by the Sodar. It then resumes sections each known as a Rag - Musical composition. Within each of these Rags, the Bani is presented in Chronological order of Guru, followed by the Bhagats. Following the 32 Rags, a section known as the Rag Mala completes the Guru Granth Sahib. A check appears throughout the Guru Granth Sahib, the check states the number of verses in the current shabad, the number of shabads in the current sub-section, the number of sections in the current Rag etc. It causes for difficulty in anybody wishing to alter the Guru Granth Sahib as most changes in the way of additions or removals of lines can be detected by scrutinizing this check figure.

The History

Some record is believed to have been kept of the first Guru\'s Bani during his time - most probably by his companions - Bhai Mardana included. Baba Buda and Bhai Datu - both followers of the Guru are also recorded in history as having kept records of the Guru\'s Bani.

When Guru Angad was enthroned as the second Guru, he was given five paisas, a coconut and a \'pothi\' - a book which it is believed had within it some of the hymns of Guru Nanak - this Pothi is not available today. This pothi might also have contained Shabads of the various Bhagats of that sub continent - such as Bhagat Kabir and Bhagat Farid - both of whom had great followings.

The Mohan Pothi

Guru Angad bought together the Bani composed by his predecessor, and recited them to Bhai Paira Mokha who scribed these to form another Pothi. This Pothi was passed to Guru Amar Das Ji when he was bestowed as the third Guru and in his time he also sought to bring together the Bani of the preceding Gurus into one Pothi. He commissioned the services of his grandson Bhai Sahansar Ram to this effect and recited the Bani to the scribe.

This pothi was kept by Sahansar Ram and was later passed to his father - Bhai Mohan. It henceforth became known as the Mohan Pothi. During the compilation of the Mohan Pothi, Bhai Datu and Baba Buda - both contemporaries of the first and second Gurus were asked to recite those Shabads that they had come to learn by heart, many more it is said were collated from pieces of paper and from the Pothi handed down from Guru to Guru.

It is said that Bhai Datu had in his possession a Pothi which contained many Shabads of the first Guru. The Mohan Pothi is in two volumes, the first volume is 600 pages and the second 448. It is in 14 sections and contains the Bani of the first three Gurus and Bhagat Kabir, Bhagat Trilochan, Bhagat Nam Dev, Bhagat Sain, Bhagat Ravi Das, Bhagat Jai Dev, but not Bhagat Farid. Notably it does not contain all the Shabads of Guru Nanak .

The Adi Granth

By the period of the fifth Guru - Guru Arjan , jealousy had grown amongst the Sikh disciples - particularly sparked by his elder brother Bhai Prithi Chand who had claimed ascension to the spiritual throne over Guru Arjan . Bhai Prithi Chand had allegedly composed his own Bani - some of it a corrupted version of previous Gurus\' Bani - in an attempt to claim authenticity. As a result of this, in the year 1603, Guru Arjan sought to update the collection of Bani.

The Guru erected a tent by the side of the Harimandir Sahib - which was then under construction and called for Bhai Gurdas - a renown and respected Sikh scholar - for the purposes of scribing this new version. The Guru called for all previous Pothis to be submitted to him in the interests of the task at hand. The spot where this Pothi was compiled is marked today by Ramsar.

It is said that when the Guru sent messengers to Bhai Mohan - possessor of the previous Pothi, the latter was in deep meditation and did not wish to be disturbed. Every time the representatives returned to Bhai Mohan, he was found to be sitting in meditation and hence they returned in dismay. Bhai Mohan is said to be a very devout Sikh of positive character and good spiritual prowess. The Guru then decided upon visiting the Sikh personally. On that occasion he sang a shabad outside the door of Bhai Mohan - thereby awakening the Sikh out of his meditation, it was thus that the Guru acquired the Mohan Pothis.

This compilation was the most complete to date and added to it were the compositions of Bhagat Farid. This version became known as the Adi Granth. A ceremony was performed on the occasion when the Holy Granth Sahib was completed in the August of 1604 - It coincided with the completion of the Gurudwara - Harimandir Sahib. On that day, the Guru placed the Holy Granth Sahib on a Gadi (seat) that he would normally sit on and himself sat on a Gadi lower to that. Baba Buda was made the first Granthi (Custodian of the holy Granth) and the honorary position of Granthi remained in his family for some generations as it was passed from son to son.

At that time, the emperor of Hindustan was Akbar, he received complaints alleging that the fifth Guru had compiled a Holy Book which was detrimental - not only to the Hindu faith, but to Islam also. Emperor Akbar asked that the Guru appear before him to answer these complaints. The Guru however sent Baba Buda and Bhai Gurdas to answer the Emperor. The Emperor - who it is said was more liberal in his views of contemporary religions than other emperors - asked that such passages from the holy Granth be read to him as might convince him that the content of the Granth was not offensive. Baba Buda then read shabads from the Holy Granth that had been compiled by Bhagat Kabir and Bhagat Farid.

Akbar was pleased with the content which embraced an acceptance of God in Hinduism and Islam. He presented two Gold Mohars to the scripture and presented robes for the two representatives and a robe for the Guru. The Emperor later visited the Guru during a tour of the states.

The Damdama Granth

When Guru Gobind Singh was enthroned, he wished to complete the final version of this Granth and therefore, he compiled another version. On that occasion, the Guru added the Shabads of his father - Guru Teg Bahadar and one Salok (couplet) of his own. Before the tenth Guru passed away, he bestowed this version of the Granth as the final and everlasting Guru. It became known as the Guru Granth Sahib.

Why Raksha Bandhan Has No Place in Sikhi ?

According to the Hindus, this day is marked, ?As per the traditions, the sister on this day prepares the pooja thali with diya, roli, chawal and rakhis. She worships the deities, ties Rakhi to the brother(s) and wishes for their well being. The brother in turn acknowledges the love with a promise to be by the sisters? side through the thick and thin and gives her a token gift.?

Nowhere in Sikh history has any Guru Sahib known to have accepted this Hindu custom. In a painting, Guru Nanak Sahib is being depicted to have a rakhi being tied on his wrist by his sister Bebe Nanaki Ji. This is nothing more than a work of fiction. The Guru, who rejected the spiritual thread that the Hindu Brahmins consider makes them connected to God, in the midst of all the learned Pandits, Brahmins and his own father, would that same Guru Sahib accept the far more earthy thread called a ?rakhi?? It?s plain logic, he wouldn?t. When asked by his father to go forth and make a profitable bargain in business, young (Guru) Nanak (Sahib) came back having spent all his given money on feeding starving fakirs. If Guru Nanak Sahib could challenge the Brahmins and reject outright the Janeu, would he want to contradict himself by accepting another thread ??...

?So what?s the harm in commemorating the day ?? ?

is the usual counter-argument of those Sikhs that accept the practice. There?s no harm in doing any of these things, but Guru Sahib just did not approve them for his Sikhs. He?s taken us out of all the clutter of all those things that have no meaning in Sikhi and have instructed us to focus more on God than on worldly funfairs that eventually take the mortal away from God. The heritage of the Sikhs is so unique, that the men and women have been given an equal status. Why would a Khalsa Kaur ever need anyone?s protection when they have the power within them to defend themselves? That is why if the Singh was given a Kirpan, so was a Kaur

granted the same. ?Truth is high? Guru Nanak Sahib said and, further added, ?but higher still is truthful living? So how can a mere thread prove the love between a brother and sister. Will that thread not wear out too, just like the janeu?

Sikhs were blessed with the roop of the Guru Sahib so that they may emulate their example of life and living which would connect us to Waheguru. Ceremonies like rakhsha bandhan are good for those for whom it was made, for the Hindu faith has it?s own reasons. Sikhi is a completely distinct faith. And how? Guru Nanak Sahib did not accept the janeu; he rejected the offering of water to his ancestors; he did not recite the Hindu Vedas; nor prayed to the 330 million gods, but contemplated only on the SHABAD what was revealed to Him from the Court of the Lord. Likewise, the other Guru Sahibs further developed what Guru Nanak Sahib preached, they never contradicted Guru Nanak Sahib?s message and way of life.

In conclusion, the ceremony does not has place in Sikhi because it is not higher than the Sikh way of life. The simple thread that is meant as a prayer to protect a sister and to seek the blessings of the brother?s long life and wellbeing is not any higher than believing that it is Akaal Purakh that protects and blesses His beings. A thread is just an illusion, a Sikh of the Guru has no need for it to be reminded of his duty to the world, and otherwise Guru Sahibs would have allowed us to adopt it. And what of those who have no brothers? Who will protect them? What of those who have no sisters, who will pray for their long life and wellbeing? It?s all out of logic for Sikhs.

Gurek Singh Dhillon baskets for Piedmont Hills

SAN JOSE: Scouted by coach Pete Simos, Gurek Singh Dhillon, also known as Nake Dhillon is fast emerging as the key basketball player for Piedmont Hills.

The 6 and half feet tall netted as many as 17 points from 8 field goals out of the 63 baskets in the match against hosts Pioneer. At the end of the match, he was his humble self to say, \"We are a team and I am only part of the team.\"

KESH-Divine gift of the Lord

This paper by Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba was submitted in the Punjab and Haryana High Court in the ongoing case which also ended up involving the definition of Sehajdhari Sikh. The SIKHPRESS takes pleasure in bringing this document on record, particularly because it was cited by several lawyers in the case.

The Kes is so important for a Sikh that it is one of the five sacred K�s, kakars, starting with Gurmukhi alphabet �K�. On the other hand, tampering with them by cutting, trimming or shearing in any manner is a bajjar kurahit �a gross transgression and the offender Sikh is branded a patit �an apostate. A Patit is no more a Sikh. So much so that a Sikh dyeing kes or beard is also declared a tankhahia, religious sinner and his offerings at Sri Akal Takhat or any other Takhat is not permitted.

Under Section 4 (Chapter X) (Article XVI) (i) of the Sikh Rahit Maryada,

Living in consonance with the Guru�s Tenets��..A Sikh should, in no way, harbour any antipathy to the hair of the head with which his child is born. He should add the suffix �Singh� to the name his son. A Sikh should keep the hair of his sons and daughters intact. (page 24)

The importance of Kes can be gauged from the fact that a person denigrating it is even debarred from voting rights for the SGPC elections. To wit the relevant section of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925,

Section 49 of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925,

A picture of a Sahajdhari given

in the Mahan Kosh (Encylopaedia

of Sikhism) Languages

Dept. Punjab

49. Qualification of electors.- Every person shall be entitled to have his name registered on the electoral roll of a constituency constituted for the election of a member or members of the Board who is a resident in that constituency and


(ii) is a Sikh more than twenty-one years of age, who had his name registered as a voter in such manner as may be prescribed:

[Provided that no person shall be registered as an elector who-

(a) trims or shaves his beard or Keshas���

The entity and the identity of a Sikh are interdependent. Though there is no doubt that merely by sporting unshorn hair a person will not become a Sikh, but it is also true that without kes a person cannot be a Sikh. It is thus construed that every person keeping unshorn hair does not become a Sikh, but every Sikh is and ought to be kesdhari.

�Sikh� literally means a follower. The one who does not follow the tenets cannot lay claim to be called a follower or a Sikh. Says Guru Amar Das,

so isKu sKw bMDpu hY BweI ij gur ky Bwxy ivic AwvY ]

The foundation stone for keeping unshorn hair was laid by the first Guru itself. Guru Nanak categorically stated that it is essential for a person to keep unshorn hair as this is a blessing from God and doing away with it is a breach of trust and misappropriation. In fact, a Sikh by doing away with his kes breaks his relationship with Guru Nanak. The following are quotes from Makke di Gosht -Guru Nanak Sahib�s conversation with Muslim sages, which were held during his sojourn to Mecca.

He alone is a Sikh, a friend, a relative and a sibling, who walks in the Way of the Guru\'s Will. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 601)

sohxy nk ijn l�mVy vwlw ] (567-9, vfhMsu, m� 1)

Your nose is so graceful, and your hair is so long.

gur ky crn kys sMig Jwry ]1] (387-12, Awsw, m� 5)

With my hair, I dust the feet of the Guru. ||1||

sy dwVIAW scIAw ij gur crnI lgMin@ ] (1419-12, slok vwrW qy vDIk, m� 3)

Those beards are true, which brush the feet of the True Guru.

From Sikh Rehat Maryada

Section 4. (Chapter X). (Article XVI)(i).

Living in consonance with Guru�s Tenets��..A Sikh should, in no way, harbour any antipathy to the hair of the head with which his child is born. He should add the suffix �Singh� to the name of his son. A Sikh should keep the hair of his sons and daughters intact. (p.24)

The life of a follower has to flow in a system. This system is known as rahit maryada. Maryada is a word derived from Sanskrit root word marya, which means the two banks of a river. If the water flows within the embankments then it is river and serves humankind. However, if it spills over or breaches its embankments, then it is floods and causes havoc. Similarly, the life of a Sikh has to flow and operate within the parameters of Maryada and the Maryada has to be the Sikh Rahit Maryada. Says Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of the Sikh faith that,

nw mrjwdu AwieAw kil BIqir bwhuiV jwsI nwgw ]

You came into this Dark Age of Kali Yuga naked, and you shall depart again naked if you fail to lead your life in maryada. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 74)

Every religion has its rules and regulations. It is imperative for a religious person to honour the sentiments, feelings and codes of every other religion. Guru Gobind Singh was asked by the royal peer, sage of emperor Bahadur Shah: �Which of the two religions is better, yours or mine?� Guru ji�s reply was, �tum ko tumahara khoob, hum ko hamara khoob - for you, yours is wonderful and for me, mine is fine.� Hence it is abundantly clear that Sikh Rahit Maryada or Sikh Code of Conduct is to regulate the life, deeds, do�s and don�ts for a Sikh only. It does not interfere with any other religion or religious group and will not invite any intrusion by any one else.

Kes and the dastar that covers it are divine gifts from Creator Lord received through the Guru. Discarding these primary �articles of faith� by a Sikh is a willful act of contempt against the will of God and Guru.

Didar, guftar and kirdar -appearance, conversation and the inner character, are the three parameters to judge and assess a person. The later two stages come in if the person does not falter at the first stage itself.

The Sikh Rahit Maryada is a well codified text containing the do�s and don�ts for a Sikh. Contrary to common belief, the Sikh Rahit Maryada is not created by Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee or SGPC. SGPC is its mere publisher and acted as a facilitator for its codification. In 1931, the SGPC, under the convenership of Professor Teja Singh, an authority on Sikhism, constituted a Sikh Rahu Reet Sub Committee. The Committee consisted of Jatehdars of all the Takhats, the Head Granthi of Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar (Golden Temple) and well recognized and respected Sikh scholars and prominent Sikhs of various seminaries and institutions who had made unparalleled contributions in the field of religion and service to the Panth. The draft Sikh Rahit Maryada prepared by this committee was widely circulated all over the world and views and suggestions were invited and considered. Finally, in 1945, the present form of the Sikh Rahit Maryada was approved and published. It is, thus, the collective wisdom of the entire Sikh Panth and contains the Sikh rules and regulations applicable on each and every Sikh.

It will be interesting to note that following are the primary sources of this Sikh Rahit Maryada:

� Guru Granth Sahib

� Banee (religious text) of Guru Gobind Singh

� Writings of Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Nand Lal

� Rahit Namas

Guru Granth Sahib is the embodiment of the Ten Gurus but contains banee of six Guru Sahibs. Guru Gobind Singh�s banee is contained separately in Dasven Patshah ka Granth or Dasam Granth. Bhai Gurdas I was a cotemporary of Guru Arjan Dev ji. Bhai Gurdas II was a contemporary of Guru Gobind Singh ji. Bhai Nand Lal, the renowned Persian scholar who served the Mughal Durbar, had left the Emperor�s service and came to stay at Anandpur Sahib, the camp headquarters of Guru Gobind Singh. Guru Gobind Singh valued his writings and gave recognition by giving the title to his works too.

The special status of the writings of Bhai Gurdas I and II and Bhai Nand Lal can be ascertained from the fact that in Harimandir Sahib or any Gurdwara, besides Gurbanee, the hymns and compositions of these two scholars may be sung and recited. Bhai Nand Lal was dictated The Sikh Code of Conduct, known as Tankhahnama, was dictated by Guru Gobind Singh to Bhai Nand Lal and is an important source of the Sikh Rahit Maryada.

The significance and reverence shown to the Kes is evident from the fact that Guru Gobind Singh named the Takhat which is the birth place of the Khalsa as Takhat Kesgarh Sahib, which means �the blessed fort of unshorn hair.�

The foundation stone for keeping unshorn hair was laid by the first Guru itself. Guru Nanak categorically stated that it is essential for a person to keep unshorn hair as this is a blessing from God and doing away with it is a breach of trust and misappropriation. In fact, a Sikh by doing away with his kes breaks his relationship with Guru Nanak. The following are quotes from Makke di Gosht -Guru Nanak Sahib�s conversation with Muslim sages, which were held during his sojourn to Mecca.

jvwb nwnk Swh sUrw:

scI suinq rb dI moieAw lY AwieAw nwl[

jo rKy moie AmwnqI Kwsw bMdw Bwil[

Avl suMnq moie hY isr pr rKy koie[

pwvy mrwqbw sXdI bfw irKIsr hoie[

(m`ky mdIny dI goSit, pMnw 144. pMjwbI XUinvristI)

Courageous Lord Nanak replied:

The true divine sunnat (injunction) is the hair brought by birth.

Blessed is the one who keeps the hair as a trust of God.

The primary sunnat is hair and the one who adorns it on his head acquires the status of a rishi (sage) or a sayyid (Muslim holy man)

(Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 144, Punjabi University)

moie isrpwau Kudwiedw lY AwieAw bMdw nwl[

nwnk AwKy pIr jI iPr lY jwie nwl[

iPr gieAw drgh ivic Aky riK nIswn[

swbq sUriq rb dI BMnn byeImwn[

(m`ky mdIny dI goSit, pMnw 144. pMjwbI XUinvristI)

Says Nanak, the hair is the blessing of the Lord to man which ought to be presented back. The man has to present himself in the court of Lord with this trust. The one who could not keep the hair intact has is in fact committed breach of trust and is to be regarded as faithless.

(Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 144, Punjabi University)

AwKI nwnk swh scu suxhu bhwvdI pIr[

ihMdU muslmwn duie isr guMm QIey jhIir[

(m`ky mdIny dI goSit, pMnw 138. pMjwbI XUinvristI)

Says Nanak to Pir Bahavdeen, both Hindus and Muslims by losing the hair in fact have lost head and have become sirgum.

(Conversation of Mecca-Madina, page 138, Punjabi University)

Thereafter all other Guru Sahibs and bhagats whose banee was included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib also made mention about long hair and beard. To wit,

sohxy nk ijn l�mVy vwlw ]

Your nose is so graceful, and your hair is so long. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 567)

hir hir nwmu idRVwieE guir mITw gur pg Jwrh hm bwl ]1] rhwau ] (1335-1

The Guru has implanted the Sweet Name of the Lord, Har, Har, within me. I dust the Guru\'s Feet with my hair. ||1||Pause|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1335)

kysw kw kir bIjnw sMq cauru Fulwvau ]

I make my hair into a fan, and wave it over the Saint. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 745)

kysw kw kir cvru Fulwvw crx DUiV muiK lweI ]1] rhwau ]

I make my hair into a fan, and wave it over them; I apply the dust of their feet to my face. ||1||Pause|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 749)

gur ky crn kys sMig Jwry ]1]

With my hair, I dust the feet of the Guru. ||1|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 387)

kys sMig dws pg Jwrau iehY mnorQ mor ]1]

With my hair, I dust the feet of your slave; this is my life\'s purpose. ||1|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 500)

nwpwk pwku kir hdUir hdIsw swbq sUriq dsqwr isrw ]12]

Purify what is impure, and let the Lord\'s presence be your religious tradition. Let your total awareness be the turban on your head. ||12|| (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1084)

idvs rYin qyry pwau plosau kys cvr kir PyrI ]1] (969-19, rwmklI, Bgq kbIr jI)

Day and night, I press Your feet, Lord; I wave my hair as the chanwar (ceremonial fan). (Guru Granth Sahib, page 969)

sy dwVIAW scIAw ij gur crnI lgMin@ ] (1419-12, slok vwrW qy vDIk, m� 3)

Those beards are true, which brush the feet of the True Guru. (Guru Granth Sahib, page 1419)

The references are not only restricted to hair on the head - Guru Amar Das ji, the third Guru, even speaks of the unshorn beard. Then there is the order of Guru Gobind Singh,

You are blessed by me. Take care of your Kes twice daily (morning and evening) with kangha (wooden comb)����.. have no association with those (being Sikhs) who shear their hair or kill the girl child.

Kangha or the wooden comb is also one of the five kakars. The order to comb the hair twice makes it abundantly clear that a person with a shorn head or the one who is a jatadhari (sadhus growing their hair but not maintaining cleanliness) does not qualify to be a Sikh. The order is categorical and forthright -a person is to have normal kes given by nature.

The poet Sainapati, who was head of the fifty two poets of Guru Gobind Singh, mentions about the requirement of kes in the following way:

hu`kw n pIvY sIs dwVHI n muMfwvY so qo

vwh gurUU vwhgurUU gurUU jI kw Kwlsw]30]

(sRI gur soBw, sYnwpiq, AiDAwie pMcm)

A Sikh is neither to smoke nor to cut kes or beard. He then is the blessed Khalsa of Wahe Guru.

(Sri Guru Sobha, Sainapati, Chapter Five)

Bhai Nand Lal had asked questions to Guru Gobind Singh about the do�s and don�ts for a Sikh and the replies are compiled in Tankhah Nama. Interestingly, during those times, anyone serving at the Mughal Court and getting tankhah, that is wages was looked at with contempt and was called a tankhahia. Significantly, the term is used in Sikh terminology for a gross religious transgression.

Bhai Daya Singh was the first of the panj payaras who offered their head to Guru Gobind Singh at Anandpur Sahib when the Khalsa was created. His rahitnama too eulogises the kes as follows:

sRI dsvIN pwqSwhI AnMdpur myN bYTy Qy, dXw isMG jI pRSn kIAw, su mhwrwj jI! rihqnwmw khIey ijs ky sunny sy mukq hoie[

auqr: kysw kw bVw Adb hY[ kys mwqw kw srUp hY[ ����jUVw sIs ky m`D Bwg mYN rwKY , AOr pwg bVI bWDy kys Fwp rKy, kMGw dvY kwl kry, pwg cunky bWDy[����. jo kysW dI byAdbI ho qW qnKwh pRwxWq hY[ jy gurUUU jI bhuq ikrpw kry Kwlsw bKSy[ so Xw pcws fMfy mwry pUrbokq AMimRq Ckwvy rihq nwmy sunwvY[�����rom srIr sy kCU n CydY����[

(rihqnwmw BweI dXw isMG)

The Tenth Master was at Anandpur Sahib. Daya Singh asked him, O Lord! please bestow on us the uniform code of conduct (Rahit Nama) which will help us attain salvation. The Lord replied, the hair should be respected greatly. Hair is the image of our mother. Tie hair in a knot in the middle of the head. Tie a full turban. Keep your hair covered. Comb your hair twice a day, ����.. those who desecrate the hair are cursed till death. If the Guru showers his grace and the Khalsa forgives the violator is to be flogged fifty to a hundred times and subsequently he is to be baptized and sermonized with Rahitnamas. ����.never ever remove hair from any part of the body.

Bhai Chaupa Singh, who was not only a contemporary of Guru Gobind Singh but took care of the Guru in his childhood, his Rahitnama says,

gurUU kw isK dyhI dy rom nw luhwey[

(rihqnwmw BweI caupw isMG iC`br)

No Sikh should remove any hair from his body.

gurUU kw isK kysW dI pwlxW krY[ do vkq kMGw hovY[ Doey dhIN nwl, mYlw h`Q n lwey[

jIau n pvxy dyvy[ sucyq rhy[ guru kw isK kys muhr inSwnI isKI dI jwxy[

(rihqnwmw BweI caupw isMG iC`br)

Let a Guru�s disciple nurture hair with care. He should comb hair twice a day. Let the hair be cleansed with curd, do not touch hair with soiled hands. Ensure that lice do not breed in the hair. Remain alert. The Guru�s Sikh should treat his hair as the very seal of Sikhism.

jo icty cuxwey, so qnKwhIAw

jo kyswDwrI klP lwey so qnKwhIAw[

(rihqnwmw BweI caupw isMG iC`br)

One who plucks grey hair is a tankhahia, religious offender. Likewise one who dyes hair is also a tankhahia.

jo kysDwrI hoie ky byty kqrU rKy, so qnKwhIAw[

jo kysDwrI dMdw nwl dwVIH tuky AQvw kYNcI nwl mocnw lvwey so qnKwhIAw[

(rihqnwmw BweI caupw isMG iC`br)

A kesdhari who gets hair of his son shorn is a tankhahia. The one who chips his beard with teeth or uses scissor or plucker is also a tankhahia.

Some other important Rahitnamas also depict the importance of kes for a Sikh.

Rahitnama Param Sumarg

Ar jo koeI is`K sRI Akwl purK Kwlsy kw hovy, iqs kau �isMG jI� kih Awdru krY[ isr kys r`Ky, dUr n kry, B`dx n kry[

(rihqnwmw prm sumwrg)

If a Sikh is the Khalsa of the Almighty he deserves to be honoured and addressed as Singh. Sikh is to inviolably keep hair intact, never shave hair, never shave head.

Rahitnama Bhai Desa Singh

kysn DUp dyie suc pwvn[ hY ieh gur kI mohr suhwvn[69[

(rihqnwmw BweI dysw isMG)

Let the hair be nourished in sun for it is the splendid seal of the guru.

jb pihly sb isRsit aupweI[ qb hI mwnuK dyih bnweI[

qn ies ky isr kys ju dIny[ so ieh qn isMgwrih kIno[79[

dwVHw muC isr kys bnweI[ hY ieh idRV ijh pRBU rjweI[

myt rjwie ju sIs mMufwvy[ khu qy jg kYsy hir pwvY[80[

pWKhu ibn ibhMg ijm hohI[ aUrb ibnw Byf im koeI[

bsn ibnw nwrI hY jYsy[ kysn ibn hoX nr qYsy[81[

kysn nr Dwry hY jb hI[ pUrn rUp hoie hY qb hI[

kys eyk pun rhq ju pweI[ qw kI mihmw khI nw jweI[82[

(rihqnwmw BweI dysw isMG)

God created the whole universe and also the human body. God bestowed the gift of kes on the human head to be its adornment. The beard, moustache and kes are embodiments of the inviolable will of God. Transgressing the Divine Will, how can one reach God with a shorn head? A man without kes is like a bird without feathers, a sheep without wool, or a woman without clothes. Only if a man keeps his hair intact can he claim to be a complete image of God. By adhering to just one principle of conduct � viz. keeping hair intact � a man achieves indescribable merit.

(Rahitnama Bhai Desa Singh)

Khushwant Singh, in A History of the Sikhs, writes truthfully about the importance of hair.

����..It proves that the sense of belonging to the Sikh community requires both the belief in the teachings of the Adi Granth and the observance of the Khalsa tradition initiated by Guru Gobind Singh; and that there is no such thing as a clean-shaven Sikh - he is simply a Hindu believing in Sikhism.

Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Subegh Singh, Bhai Shahbaz Singh, Bhai Dayala ji are shining examples Sikh history who laid down their lives but did not agree to relinquish their hair. Hundreds of women and children chose death in the jail of Mir Mannu at Lahore rather than do away with their hair.

In the �Gurmat Life� chapter of the Sikh Rahit Maryada it is clearly mentioned,

isrguMm (kysDwrI ho ky jo kys ktw dyvy), nVI mwr (jo is`K ho ky ieh kMm krn) dw sMg nhIN krnw[

You must not associate with a Sikh who had uncut hair earlier and has cut it or a Sikh who smokes. (p.38)


The nomenclature of Sirdar and Sirgum needs clear understanding. Dar in Persian means �a person of� or one who possesses, e.g. izzatdar, the one who has izzat or respect, vafadar, the one possessing vafa or loyalty, khuddar, the one who has khudi or pride. Similarly Sirdar literally means if a person has hair, then only he has his head in its place. Contrary to this if the person has shorn his hair, it is sir gum i.e. he has lost his head. This term was first used by Guru Nanak Dev in Makke di gosht .

The turban is the covering for the kes which Guru Nanak claims he obtained as a blessing directly from God. This was passed on to the succeeding Guru and now adorns the faithful Sikhs. As Guru Sahib himself witnesses:

mY gur imil auc dumwlVw ] (74-9, isrIrwgu, m� 5)

I met with the Guru, and I have tied a tall, plumed turban.

suxI pukwr smrQ suAwmI bMDn kwit svwry ] (631-4, soriT, m� 5)

The Almighty Lord and Master heard my prayer; cutting away my bonds, He has adorned me.

pihir isrpwau syvk jn myly nwnk pRgt phwry ]2]29]93] (631-5, soriT, m� 5)

He dressed me in robes of honour, and blended His servant with Himself; Nanak is revealed in glory throughout the world. ||2||29||93||

Against this background, one has to view the true ecclesiastical position of the kes. Sikhs pray for the blessings of kes from the Lord in their daily prayer (Ardaas) and will continue to do till time immemorial.
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